Benchmark Options Lawyers Mineral Claims

Negotiations with John Williamson and Jim Greig of Benchmark Metals Inc. BNCH TSX.V during the spring of 2018 culminated in an LOI being entered into details of which are disclosed on Benchmark's SEDAR filings page.  While the option remains in good standing Benchmark can earn up to a 75% interest in the claims by spending 9 million dollars in exploration expenses. Until Benchmark has incurred exploration expenses amounting to $5,000.,000, it does not have a vested interest in the Lawyers mineral claims.    Provided exploration results are satisfactory to Benchmark management, we anticipate that by the end of 2019 at least the $5,000,000 will have been expended.

After earning its 75% Benchmark can purchase the remaining 25% from PPM on terms contained in the LOI. 

The LOI stipulates that the option relationship be more clearly comprehensively agreed upon in a definitive agreement yet to be finalized.

For updates on the exploration progress you are referred to the Benchmark press releases as they may be circulated from time to time, given the public company status of Benchmark.  Accordingly, until such time as circumstances change, no further information regarding the Lawyers claims will be provided here.

2018 Update

The Toodgonne is receiving attention as a result of a number of new players acquiring interests in claim groups in the vicinity of the Lawyers mineral claims.  In particular AMARC's press release of December 2017 disclosed: Aurico's Kemess project was acquired for something over $300 million in 2017.   AMARC's JOY, with the new acquisition of the expansive PINE claims, now controls the northern extension to the prolific Kemess gold-copper district. Centerra Gold recently announced the $310 million acquisition of AuRico Metals, owner of the Kemess District. Amarc has identified a new, 20 km long northeast trending structural corridor that hosts over 10 compelling porphyry gold-copper deposit targets. These focused targets are the result of extensive historical surface surveys and drilling.  Amarc and Hudbay Minerals Inc. ("Hudbay") (TSX:HBM; NYSE:HBM) continue to assess the 2017 data from...JOY and consider plans for 2018. Hudbay is expected to provide notice of its commitment to 2018 exploration programs by year-end.  Subsequently December 27, 2017, Vancouver, BC - Amarc Resources Ltd. ("Amarc" or the "Company") (TSX-V: AHR; OTCBB: AXREF)  announced that Hudbay Minerals Inc. ("Hudbay")(TSX: HBM; NYSE:HBM) confirmed 2018 funding of $3.15 million1 to advance Amarc's JOY Project. 

These projects have a more porphyry copper deposit focus which is justified at Lawyers for its Silver Pond North target.

Your management is optimistic that with commodity prices anticipated rise, including gold, silver and copper, there will be renewed interest in exploration and development of our Toodoggone asset. 

MDRU shared an geologic explanatory poster related to its work on porphyry exploration potential in the Toodoggone which can be accessed here

Sometimes it is better to be patient

2016 October 5, MDRU of UBC is conducting their indicator element study at Lawyers with particular interest in Silver Pond all at no cost to the company; in addition the following studies will be generally available as they progress due to the initiatives of the BC Government in support of mineral exploration, also at no cost to the company.  We note that the Toodoggone is a target for the surveys.  Combining the two will provide valuable targeting insight for the company in future exploration of our Lawyers claims package.

It’s probably one of the biggest geophysical surveys underway anywhere. Pilots now have three magnetometer-equipped Cessnas criss-crossing an especially rugged 24,000-square-kilometre expanse of west-central British Columbia on tight, 250-metre linespacing. This is Search Phase II, part of an even bigger project that will make “a generational contribution to better understand the area’s geology and mineral potential,” says Bruce Madu, VP of minerals and mining for Geoscience B.C. But the results will hardly be limited to industry. The non-profit’s mission is to access “earth science for everyone.”

Data of this quality rarely finds its way to junior explorers, let alone prospectors. But proprietary software makes it available to anyone with an internet connection. Besides mineral opportunities, practical advantages include land use planning for regional districts, local communities and First Nations.

The grid extends from Fort Fraser to Smithers, building on two previous surveys. Last year’s Phase I flew over neighbouring terrain between Terrace, Kitimat and Smithers. The 2013 TREK program covered an area bounded by Vanderhoof, Fraser Lake and Quesnel, conducting sampling and mapping, as well as airborne mag. The three surveys combined will cover 55,500 square kilometres, about the size of Nova Scotia.

When combined with two previous surveys, this year’s program
will provide magnetic data for 55,500 square kilometres.
(Photo: Geoscience B.C.)

TREK’s inspiration came from the Blackwater discovery, now New Gold’s (TSX:NGD) proposed open pit mine with reserves of 8.2 million ounces gold and 61 million ounces silver. Yet “the surrounding geology is poorly understood,” Madu says.

The Phase II flyover includes another proposed mine, Pacific Booker Minerals’ (TSXV:PBM) Morrison copper-gold project, as well as Thompson Creek Metals’ (TSX:TCM) majority-held Endako molybdenum mine and the former Bell-Granisle copper-gold mines. The survey just bypasses Imperial Metals’ (TSX:III) 50%-held Huckleberry copper mine.

Low prices put Endako on care and maintenance, with Huckleberry slated to follow this summer. But Geoscience B.C. helped extend the latter mine’s life by about two years, Madu says. “We flew some geophysics, the company participated and ended up drilling new ore. A couple of hundred jobs were given a couple more years.”

The region “clearly has substantial mineral potential,” Madu points out. “Even more importantly it has excellent infrastructure, lots of road networks, there’s rail in the area and hydro nearby, so it can be quite a cost-effective place to discover and develop a mine.”

Having just reconnoitred with the Search Phase II crew, Madu waxes enthusiastically about the staff, the three Cessna Super Caravans especially suited for this survey’s challenges, the ultra-sensitive magnetometers and the preliminary data. “It excites me—the quality is superb.”

Phase II comprises one of 13 projects scheduled for this year, with a budget totalling $2.5 million. “They cover all sorts of perspectives,” Madu says. “We’ll be active in the Sheep Creek, Barkerville and Cassiar gold camps, the Toodoggone region, we’ve got a mapping crew south of Terrace working on last year’s geophysics, we’ll be east of the Penticton gold camp around the Boundary area. We have chemistry projects re-analyzing almost 5,000 archive samples from southeastern British Columbia as well as the Atlin area. And we’ve got a lot of value-added projects on the go this year, taking existing data and putting together a more complete picture combining geophysics, geochemistry and geology, which I think is a big advantage for the industry’s future, being able to have these super-sized data sets.”

Not limited to mineral exploration, Geoscience B.C. also conducts surveys related to areas such as oil and gas, geothermal energy and groundwater.

In addition to fundamental baseline data creation, we do a lot of innovative research as well.—Bruce Madu,
VP of minerals and
mining for Geoscience B.C.

“On the minerals side, during our 11 years of operation we surveyed a large portion of the province with geophysics, we re-analyzed almost the entire suite of geochemical samples for the province, we provided a lot of innovative research in glacial tills and tree-top sampling, we funded new geochemical methods using water in the field as well as capturing gases and sampling organic materials. So in addition to fundamental baseline data creation, we do a lot of innovative research as well.”

Next year’s plans call for Search Phase III extending northeast to the Quesnel copper belt and covering a region that hosts Imperial’s Mount Polley copper-gold-silver mine, the auriferous turf of Barkerville Gold Mines TSXV:BGM, Thompson Creek’s Mount Milligan copper-gold operation and AuRico Metals’ (TSX:AMI) gold-copper-silver deposits at Kemess.

Looking further ahead, Madu sees the organization “looking at the mining cycle instead of just exploration to see what we can do to help the development or efficiency of mining. We might look at research into subjects like water, tailings and metallurgy, for example.”

The group was founded in 2005 when the province put up money as an inducement to industry contributions. A lot of those contributions come from preferred rates or volunteer work supporting a small staff. Regional trusts have also contributed. Last May the province forked over $5 million.

The results of all that go online, available to everyone. Geoscience B.C.’s Earth Science Viewer opens with a satellite image of the province. Users can zoom in on a particular area, load a layer of data from the selections to the left, then overlay additional data. New info comes online as survey results are processed. Mineral tenures are updated daily, with links to the government’s database of claimholders.

“Viewers can put the tie-dyed geophysical charts on top of the geology layer to see how they agree or don’t agree,” says Madu. “I think that’s quite a powerful prospecting tool because one thing we want to do is challenge assumptions. If the geology and geophysics are telling different stories, we want people to research that and explore it.”

A planned upgrade, possibly within a year, will make the viewer three-dimensional, “something like Google Earth where you can tip it on its side and fly around valleys a bit,” he adds.

With a wealth of practical info for industry and communities alike, the viewer “puts the power of information into the hands of people who can use it.”

Related posts:

  1. Geoscience B.C. gets $5-million grant, plans “new generation” of airborne mag

Going Forward in 2016

A busy year provided the company with a multitude of positive steps advancing the exploration of our Lawyers mineral claims; as well as establishing new strategic relationships. 

Through an investment in exploration at Lawyers in excess of $800,000, the company was enabled to secure a strong partner and complete a 43 101 report and resource estimate for the Cliff Creek and Dukes Ridge parts of the Lawyers claim group.  In the result the totality of the Lawyers claim package had its expiry dates extended to 2025. 

The report will be posted on this site.  Summarily, it identified 80,000 ounces of Au and 3,200,000 ounces of Ag in the ground in the vicinity of the Cliff Creek underground workings (not formally located as yet due to lack of exposure to the actual workings and work that was done up to 1992).  This conservative estimate arose from the 2015 4,000 meter drilling program .

Interested parties are referred to the report for particulars.

Permitting is being obtained for further drilling for summer of 2016 in order step out to M Grid, define the new discovery P2 vein (in one .7 meter section assaying 8 ounces Au and 7 kilos Ag), and add to the qualified resources. 

By increasing the available metal qualified and defining the proximity of that metal to the underground workings at Cliff Creek, with a positive correlation, management expects to be able to assemble a team to monetize those resources and establish a base for further exploration and development.

Porphyry Indicators

While Cliff Creek provides epithermal vein mineralization, several parties have indicated an interest is searching for porphyry style mineralization.  Geoscience BC, in conjunction with geoscientists from UBC, have received approval and funding for a 2 year exploration program for porphyry indicator elements in the Toodoggone.  Our Lawyers together with our associated company, Guardsmen Resources' Ranch claims, among others, will be subjects of this study. Once completed the scientists have, in consideration of our support of their program, agreed to share the results of their work with us at no cost to the company.  There are references to the previous studies conducted throughout BC by these scientists.  They have established a successful correlation between the indicator elements and known ore bodies. 

Given the success of Aurico at Kemess and the knowledge that we have gained over the past 15 years from all of the earlier geophysics and drilling at Lawyers and Ranch, management is confident that important porphyry targets will be identified as a result of their work.

 

As an addition to the Lawyers Chronology

As noted elsewhere in our web page information disclosures, between 2013 and 2015, PPM management searched for a method to preserve and enhance property tenures at the Lawyers.  Diligent and creative efforts resulted in first enabling PPM, with the cooperation of Guardsmen Resources Inc., using PAC application to extend the life of its core claim group out to 2025.  Subsequently, partly as a result of this extension, PPM attracted the attention of partners which enabled the company to undertake its 2015 exploratory drilling program at Cliff Creek and Duke's Ridge.  As at the date of writing March 1 2016, management awaits production of a 43 101 report which will delineate the calculated resource at Cliff Creek as drilled.  Given that the P2 vein discovery (with its 8 ounces of gold and 7 kilograms of silver per ton) was only encountered twice in the program, any mineral resource arising from that discovery will not be included in the 43 101 calculation until such time as it is more significantly explored.  As a result of the 2015 exploration program, PPM was enabled to add assessment work credits to all of the expanded Lawyers claim group tenure thus extending them all out to 2025.  With the 43 101 report being produced by Bob Lane and Barney Bowen in hand, PPM expects to be able to continue its exploration of the Lawyers mineral claims in the summer of 2016.

2015 A Year of Advancement in the Face of Adversity

Late in 2014 management identified a supportive BC Government program by which exploration companies that had advanced their mineral claims over a period extending over 10 years with work programs would be entitled to apply any portable assessment credits ("PAC") available to them in their PAC account, to extend the life of their mineral claims.  Notwithstanding that the switch over from legacy to cell tenure in 2004, at the expectation of the MTO, raised some concerns, the BC Government offices responsible for mineral exploration worked with AMEBC and other key parties to enable companies with the right prerequisites, such as PPM, who diligently pursued the opportunity, to extend the life of their claims.  Enabled by availability of PAC credits from PPM's associated company, Guardsmen Resources Inc., PPM management accordingly managed to move tenure expiration of its Lawyers claims, to which this policy applied, out to 2025.  In addition, due to staking done by management to expand the Lawyers footprint, the claim package now encompasses most min-file occurrences in the area. 

Consequent on management's success in tenure extension, without which PPM faced tenure expiry in November 2015, parties interested in our mineral claim package approached management.  After helpful consultations with interested First Nations, this culminated in Diameter Enterprises Ltd., (a company associated with a drilling contractor experienced with PPM and its Lawyers claims) participating with the company in facilitating an exploration drilling program from July to October 2015.  The program was designed to explore the Cliff Creek Zone and Dukes Ridge, identifying anomalous zones and provide confirmation of previous exploration drilling not otherwise to 43-101 standards.

Drilling compilation is underway.  Noteworthy positive results included drilling a previously unidentified 0.7 meter wide zone which assayed over 8 ounces Au and 220 ounce Ag per ton not dissimilar to the fabled Phoenix Zone, the last ore taken from Duke's Ridge on the Lawyers claims. 

This work program enabled management to extend the life of all the other non PAC qualified claims comprising the Lawyers mineral claim group out to 2025 and in exchange for Guardsmen's assistance regarding PAC accessibility, excess assessment credits were past on to it. 

Depending on the results of the compilation of the drilling, management will be considering further exploration including mag surveys, potential bulk sampling, further drilling and other opportunities that may arise.

It has been a very positive past 16 months for the company given the general mineral exploration climate.  The company would like to thank the BC Government and other responsible parties for their support in these times.  They were crucial in helping to set the foundation for future success of PPM in the Toodoggone.

Aurico at Kemess North

Aurico continues its efforts to explore and confirm the feasibility of an underground mining operation at Kemess North; (please see the Aurico website for particulars); these efforts provide confidence at PPM for the future of the Toodoggone mining camp.  Northgate's operation of the Kemess South open pit provided very favourable support for other exploration and development operators in the Toodoggone mining camp. 

A Chronology of the Lawyers Mineral Claims

As noted elsewhere in our web page information disclosures, between 2013 and 2015, PPM management searched for a method to preserve and enhance property tenures at the Lawyers.  Diligent and creative efforts resulted in first enabling PPM, with the cooperation of Guardsmen Resources Inc., using PAC application to extend the life of its core claim group out to 2025.  Subsequently, partly as a result of this extension, PPM attracted the attention of partners which enabled the company to undertake its 2015 exploratory drilling program at Cliff Creek and Duke's Ridge.  As at the date of writing March 1 2016, management awaits production of a 43 101 report which will delineate the calculated resource at Cliff Creek as drilled.  Given that the P2 vein discovery (with its 8 ounces of gold and 7 kilograms of silver per ton) was only encountered twice in the program, any mineral resource arising from that discovery will not be included in the 43 101 calculation until such time as it is more significantly explored.  As a result of the 2015 exploration program, PPM was enabled to add assessment work credits to all of the expanded Lawyers claim group tenure thus extending them all out to 2025.  With the 43 101 report being produced by Bob Lane and Barney Bowen in hand, PPM expects to be able to continue its exploration of the Lawyers mineral claims in the summer of 2016.

Between August 2010 and March 2013 principals of PPM Phoenix Precious Metals Corp. (as owner of 100% of the Lawyers Mineral Claim group), have been researching the history of the operations of Cheni Gold Mines Inc., particularly focusing on the period 1988 to 1993 to glean an understanding of what took place and WHY from start up to Cheni’s cessation of mining/milling operations.

As a background summary the following is drawn from a 2011 Assessment report:

The Lawyers property covers a large area of widespread epithermal gold and silver vein mineralization; including the former Lawyers (Cheni) underground gold-silver mines (the AGB, Cliff Creek and Phoenix).  The Lawyers mines were operated between 1989 and 1992.   A total of 5,401,981 grams of gold and 113,184,127 grams of silver were produced from the processing 619,900 tonnes of ore. Most of the production came from the AGB deposit, with subordinate amounts coming from the Cliff Creek and Phoenix deposits.  Additional undeveloped zones and prospects on the property include Duke’s Ridge, Silver Pond West and M Grid.

The Lawyers property is located in the Toodoggone region, 450 km northwest of Prince George, British Columbia.  The property consists of 36 contiguous MTO mineral claims covering 8498.78 hectares of land.  Access to the property is provided by the Omineca Resource Access Road. PPM has added some additional claims since 2011 which solidify its tenure position and bring in more minfiles. 

The property is underlain primarily by volcanic strata of the Lower Jurassic Toodoggone Formation. Past trenching, diamond drilling and underground development on the Cliff Creek deposit, carried out by Cheni Gold Mines Ltd. up until 1991, outlined a gold-bearing silica vein, stockwork and breccia system with a strike length of about 1,600 metres and with widths of up to 58 metres. The episodic nature of the system is characterized by banded crack-and-seal veins and multi-stage chalcedonic breccias, the latter of which are particularly well-developed in dilatant zones that occur at the intersection between the main northwest- trending through-going fault and cross-cutting structures.

In 2010 we re-opened the Cliff Creek portal to determine its condition. The underground was flooded, but the portal was in excellent shape.  Grab samples of epithermal mineralization collected from the floor of the portal and dump returned a range of gold and silver values.  Many samples assayed well in excess of historic average mine grades (being 7 grams gold and 243 grams silver) with a high of 86.10 g/t Au and 9855 g/t Ag.  PPM undertook modelling of historic drill results at Cliff Creek and Dukes Ridge in 2012.

We have reviewed the following documents as a basis for our presentation:

Complete set of all Wright Engineering feasibility and mine and mill design studies 1986 – 1988;

Actual Cheni Mill Production records and notes for 1992 including summary of production for 1988-1991

Northern Miner news reports 1990-1993;

BV Mine Plan, BV Project, AL Property Cheni Gold Mines Inc. 10 June 1991;

Prospectus/application METS Project Cheni Gold Mines. Inc. May 29 1992;

Interviews conducted with Ned Reid, Austin Hitchins, Jack Vincent and some former Cheni miners and shift bosses;

Review of Skeena Resources Limited news release 2009 reporting on METS acquisition

The exploration history of the Lawyers property has been well documented in assessment reports by Pegg (2003), Blann (2004), and Jacob and Nordin (2006). 

1970-1974: Kennco Explorations (Western) Ltd (Kennco) carried out reconnaissance work in the area of the Lawyers property through the 1960s and recorded the earliest, focused exploration on the property in 1970. Kennco is credited with discovering the AGB deposit in 1973 and conducted the first diamond drilling in 1974.    

1980 – 1986: SEREM  Ltd (a subsidiary of BRGM the French banking concern)  optioned  the  property  from Kennco and completed extensive exploration work programs on the property;

1986: the project was being advanced towards a production decision and SEREM Ltd changed its name to Cheni Gold Mines Ltd (Cheni).

1989: Cheni brought the Lawyers AGB mine into production which contained Proven Reserves of 498,900 tons grading 0.243 ounces per ton gold and 7.69 ounces per tonne silver.  The Cliff Creek deposit contained Probable Reserves of 463,300 tons grading 0.170 opt Au and 7.61 opt Ag; Duke’s Ridge deposit contained Probable Reserves of 75,400 tons grading 0.23 opt Au and 6.57 opt Ag (Wright, 1986).   1988, the Cliff Creek deposit reserves were revised to 838,900 tons grading 0.183 opt Au and 7.12 opt Ag in the Probable category and 524,500 tons grading 0.170 opt Au and 6.57 opt Ag in the Possible category.   Note that all of the figures listed above were estimated prior to the implementation of National Instrument 43-101 and are considered to be historical estimates only.

1989 – 1991 Cheni mined and milled AGB mine ore;

1991 January to July Cliff Creek mine is in development stage

1991 April – Nov Cheni developed and mined BV and other surface gold resources on Ranch/Al claims (optioned from Energex) stated to offset a production shortfall arising from the timing of transition from AGB mine ore to Cliff Creek ore to ensure Lawyers Mill could run in the fall 1991 through 1992;

1991 July – Dec Cheni mining commenced at Cliff Creek, but July 1991 Ed McCormack was brought in (some say to begin mine/mill closure processes);

1992 Mill records reveal that 48,200 tons of Cliff Creek ore grading (in combination with AGB/Energex (BV) ore) between .21 oz/t and .27 oz/t Au and 4.92 oz/t and 8.89 oz/t Ag were processed from March 1 to July 31 after which the mill shut down until Phoenix mine was opened and ore was processed in Nov/Dec 1992; total mill through put calculations reveal that AGB was the primary ore supply for the mill and that no more than the recorded 48,200 tons of ore from Cliff Creek were processed;

1992 Aug – Oct METS ore body was planned to be developed and mined Oct 1992 to Feb 1993; project not being recorded as supplying any ore to the mill; mined rock was put back and mine reclaimed; Skeena Feb 5 2009 news release reports acquisition of METS and that A Zone resource by Cheni in 1992 of 53,215 tons grade 11.6 grams/t Au; deposit development material was to be trucked to Cheni mill....Program abandoned when French owners of Cheni prematurely shut down Canadian Gold operations. In 1993 the stockpiled development rock was placed back underground and adit was sealed and site reclaimed.

1992 Nov – Dec Phoenix mined and mille (5400 tons);

Mining was conducted from multi-level underground developments between 1989 and 1992, producing over 171,000 ounces of gold and 3,548,000 ounces of silver.  Cheni mined out the AGB deposit, partially mined the Cliff Creek deposit, and mined out the surface expression of the small Phoenix deposit.  

Infill surface exploration, underground development and mining resulted in Cheni reporting downward revisions of the Cliff Creek reserves; then declining metal prices had the company “writing-off” the remaining mineral inventory.  The mine was closed early in 1993, following the milling of ore from the Phoenix deposit.   The reasons cited for mine closure were low metal prices, Canadian dollar fluctuations coupled with high mining costs.

1995 The then NDP provincial government determined that since no mining or milling had been done on the Cheni property for over 3 years the mining and milling operations at AGB and Cliff Creek had to be dismantled and cleaned up ending and potential operations there.

1997: AGC Americas Gold Corp (AGC) optioned the property, formed a joint venture with Antares Mining and Exploration Corp (Antares) and carried out a large airborne EM-Mag-Radiometric survey, which included coverage of the Lawyers property.  We have that survey. Limited surface work was also undertaken (Hawkins, 2003).   In 1999 Antares sold its interest in the property back to AGC.  The claims and the mining lease were later allowed to lapse.

2000-2001: Guardsmen Resources Inc. (an associated company to PPM Phoenix Precious Metals Corp.) acquired the former Cheni mining lease and mineral claims by ground staking.

2001-2007: Small exploration programs were conducted on the property by several different operators, but the claims remained wholly-owned by Guardsmen (until transferred to PPM in 2011);

In addition to the previously defined zones on the Cheni ground, the current expanded Lawyers property also encompasses several important targets, including MGrid and Silver Pond West zones, that were not part of the original Cheni claims.

TABLULAR BACKGROUNDER

1925

IndividualPlacer Miners

1930’s

Prospecting by Cominco

1960’s

Prospecting by Kennco Exploration

1969-1975

Exploration by Kennco Exploration discovers gold on Lawyers property

1973

Discovery of AGB zone by Kennco

1978

Exploration by SemcoMining and SEREM

1984,  1985

St. Joe Canada diamond drill the SilverPond prospect

1987

SEREMchanged to Cheni Gold Mines

1989

Testproduction by Cheni Gold Mines of Lawyers mine

1992

Cheni terminates production on property after test mining at Cliff Creek and Phoenix zones

1997

Antares Mining & Americas Gold Corporation acquire property & conduct detailed airborne EM Survey

2000

Guardsmen Resources stakes and acquires complete property

2000-2003

Exploration by Guardsmen Resources

2003

Guardsmen options property to Bishop Gold; hand trenching carried out on M Grid

2004

BishopGold carries out backhoe trenching on M Grid

2005

Bishop Golddrills 5 DDH on southern part of Cliff Creek zone

2006

Bishop Golddrills 5 DDH on central part of Cliff Creek zone

2007

rock geochemical sampling in the Marmot Lake area

2010

Guardsmen reopensCliff Creek Portal

2011

PPM undertakes FNconsultations and assessment dewatering of portal;

2012

PPM continuesacquisition/evaluation of historical data and interviews; dewatering approvalto 2013

2013

PPM arrangingdewatering, mapping, geophysics, drilling, bulk sampling for summer 2013

2014

Economic conditions limited exploration in 2013; 2014 will engage management in exploring alternative methods of securing capital to enable 2015 exploration and development at Cliff Creek or as markets dictate.